It often tolerates poor, disturbed soils and is frequently found along roadsides, although it prefers to grow in rich, loamy soils in full sun and with adequate water. Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) It's not for nothing that this plant is named, "giant ragweed." You will need to have all the parts of a plant and to select plants with mature fruit to identify most species of Rumex that occur in our area. This website has photos and descriptions of native plants found in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. [1] The edges of the leaves are slightly "crisped" or wavy, the upper surface is hairless and the under surface may be papillose. Rumex obtusifolius, commonly known as bitter dock,[1][2] broad-leaved dock, bluntleaf dock, dock leaf or butter dock, is a perennial plant in the family Polygonaceae. The leaves are fairly thick and the stems can get a tinge of red, especially in cold weather. The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex, are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae. In fact, the common name, "yellow dock" refers to the yellowish color often found inside the root, when it is sliced open. Leaves can be used as a vegetable; roots and seeds may be used for herbal or medicinal purposes Native species include Slender Dock (Rumex brownii), Wiry Dock (R. dumosus), Mud Dock (R. bidens) and Glistening Dock (R. crystallinus). For some species in the Full Key you will need to measure the length of the pedicel. [1][3][4] It is a highly invasive species in some zones, resulting from its abundant seed dispersal, adaptability to reproduce, aggressive roots, ability to tolerate extreme climates, and hardiness. Dock plants are persistent perennials, which means you can forage it throughout the year. It is found throughout California up to an elevation of 8200 feet (2500 m). Many weeds are obscure plants that are easy to miss, but yellow dock is a weed that stands out. Rumex crispus Distinguishing Features. Image courtesy of Matthew Naedel. Members of this genus are very common perennial herbs with a native almost worldwide distribution, and introduced species growing in the few places where the genus is not native. Butter Dock. A tea prepared from the root was thought to cure boils. The calyx of the ripe fruit is helpful (and often necessary) to identify the plant. Native plants have been photographed from the province's Prairie, Cypress Upland, Parkland, and Boreal eco-regions. It's fairly easy to identify, and grows abundantly throughout all of non-Arctic North America. Curly dock ( Rumex crispus , also called yellow dock) is one of those plants that is easily overlooked. Most of these species are very difficult to identify by the achene. Look, in particular, for the sword-like shape and the curled edges of the foliage. This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. It is a highly invasive species in some zones, resulting from its abundant seed dispersal, adaptability to reproduce, aggressive roots, ability to tolerate extreme climates, and hardiness. Identification difficulty level: novice Curly dock, Latin name: Rumex crispus, is an excellent wild plant to know. Several plant varieties produce Psyllium, but plantain is a rich source of the compound and the easiest to find and identify in most regions. Wild Dock Wild Onions Wild Rice Wild Wheat Wood Ear Mushroom Wood Sorrel Yaupon. Most species are common and widespread. Flowers. Stems become stiff and woody as the plant matures. The leaves of most dock plants are long and narrow, and the plants are most easily identified by their distinctive seed stalks. Rumex crispus produces a long taproot. Broadleaf Dock. That is the color of the dried flower-head in fall. The plant reaches as much as 4 feet tall at maturity. [citation needed], Rumex obtusifolius is widely distributed throughout the world. "The Names of Plants". The root grows large and deep, and it can be harvested for potent herbal medicine anytime. It is considered a broadleaf, perennial "weed," "wildflower," or "herb," depending on your perspective. Broad-leaved dock can be differentiated from other genus Rumex plants by its broad, blunt leaves. [1], The name, Rumex obtusifolius, was assigned by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century, and has remained unchanged, although there are numerous subspecies. [1] Broad-leaved dock is designated an "injurious weed" under the UK Weeds Act 1959. It is from this curly leaf margin that the weed gets the nickname of "curly dock." [1] It is easily recognizable by its very large oval leaves with cordate bases and rounded tips, some of the lower leaves having red stems. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. Dover Publications. In Romania, the leaves are sometimes used as an alternative to other plants in the making of sarmale. In more detail, the calyx of curly dock has smooth margins while the calyx of broad-leaved dock has horned margins. In some states of the U.S., yellow dock is considered an invasive plant. [1][6] Seedlings can be identified by the oval leaves with red stems and rolled leaves sprouting from the center of the plant. Plant taxonomy classifies yellow dock as Rumex crispus. Powderham Castle … [1] In the UK, the invertebrate herbivore species is a leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula. Broad-leaved dock ( Rumex obtusifolius) is a long lived perennial with a basal rosette of long-stalked, smooth ovate-oblong leaves, stems 80cm-1m (32in-3¼ft) high and the distinctive seedheads on spikes that persist into winter. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. 2016Footnote 1). The pedicels are jointed; include both … Ditches, roadsides, wetlands, pastures, agronomic crop fields (especially those in perennial crops like alfalfa), orchards, disturbed, unmanaged sites, and disturbed m… Just roll a leaf of yellow dock between your thumb and forefinger to crush it, then doctor your wound with the juicy pulp left over, and the burning will subside. For the same reason, while the leaves are edible, it is best to avoid eating them in large quantities. Bitter dock (Rumex obtusifolius) Curly dock — also called curled dock — has leaves with lots of “ruffles” across the leaf and along the edges. You have to love the texture of this dried flower spike: If you grab the coarse brown spike and slide your hand along it, you will come away with a handful of small, crispy flakes (the seeds and dried sepals). The distinct flower head of the plant that remains after the blooms have dried and turned brown is helpful for the identification of yellow dock. Furthermore, it’s not typically as prolific of a weed as dandelion— at least not in urban areas. The condition of the ocrea can be a good indicator of how tender and tasty that dock plant is. The yellowish root notwithstanding, the signature color of Rumex crispus, in the eyes of many students of wild plants, is brown. [1][5], Rumex obtusifolius is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant that grows to a height of 40 to 150 cm (16 to 59 in). The seeds produced are dry and reddish brown. Once you are able to use this feature to identify it as yellow dock, you will never forget this plant. The flowers are small, green and numerous, arranged in whorled spikes at the ends of the stem. This plant has a long taproot that enables it survive long drought periods and out competes other vegetation. Botanical Classification for Yellow Dock Plants, Home Remedy Against Rash From Stinging Nettles, Common Backyard Plants That Are Poisonous to Dogs. It is native to Europe, but is found on all temperate continents. It can … This makes curly dock one of the easier plants for beginners to identify. The bottom leaves can be quite long, ranging from 1/2 foot to 1 foot in length. [1] It is a plant growing readily on arable land, meadows, waste ground, roadsides, ditches, shorelines and riverbanks, woodland margins, forest clearings, and orchards. If your skin has ever brushed up against stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) while you were working in the garden, you know about the burning sensation caused by their spines, followed by an itchy rash. Despite its medicinal qualities, Rumex crispus is listed as a plant poisonous to dogs by the ASPCA. [1] It has been an invasive species of the Great Lakes region of North America where it was first sighted in 1840. A related weed can also grow to be as much as 4 feet tall: bitter, or "broadleaf" dock (Rumex obtusifolius). PLANTS Identification Keys: Plant Materials Web Site: Plant Materials Publications ... hybrid dock Rumex albescens Oahu dock Rumex ×alexidis [maritimus ... American wildlife and plants: A guide to wildlife food habits. Cambridge University Press. Wild dock species are native all around the world. [1], Species of flowering plant in the family Polygonaceae. ---Description--- It is a large and spreading plant, its stout stems 2 to 3 feet high, the leaves 6 to 12 inches long, with rather slender foot-stalks, the margins waved and the end or apex of the leaf rounded. [citation needed] Dried seeds are used as a spice. Rumex obtusifolius, commonly known as bitter dock, broad-leaved dock, bluntleaf dock, dock leaf or butter dock, is a perennial plant in the family Polygonaceae. The first is the look of the plant’s lower leaves. It is in the same genus as another weed commonly found in North America, sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds . Exotic species include Curled Dock (R. crispus), Clustered Dock (R. conglomeratus), Fiddle Dock (R. pulcher) and Broad-leaf Dock (R. obtusifolius). Image courtesy of Matthew Naedel. If you are going to try to dig it out, you must dig deep, so as to remove the whole root; otherwise, as a perennial weed, the plant will re-emerge. Ecological and morphological characteristics of the endoparasitoids of larval, "Home remedies: dock leaves for nettle stings", "List of Invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rumex_obtusifolius&oldid=988538738, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 20:03. It doesn’t have a showy flower and the leaves can look kind of generic. Fortunately, Rumex crispus, a home remedy for such skin irritation, often grows near stinging nettle. There are 34 species of dock present in Canada, of which 20 are native and 14 are introduced (Brouillet et al. Vibrant Green Backlit Dock Leaves (Rumex obtusifolius L.) Growing by a Field. Aptly named bloody dock for its distinctive red veins, this herbaceous plant originates in the Mediterranean. Plants may be poisonous to livestock when ingested in quantity. Another aid in identifying this weed is its height. The flowers once mature are used in dried flower arranging. It is easy to identify, and the reasons for bothering to identify it include that it is: Plant taxonomy classifies yellow dock as Rumex crispus. Cho, Y., Kwon, O. Quinlan, S.E., and S. Cuccarese. Curly dock inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed areas. [6], Rumex crispus - curly dock - is similar in appearance, but with thinner and wave-like leaves. For A. rumicis research, this host plant is generally targeted because it is found highly within the moth's range. Broad-leaved dock is a tall plant with very large, wavy-edged, oblong leaves that have red stems on their undersides. They contain oxalic acid which can be hazardous if consumed in large quantities. Common names are from state and federal lists. Image courtesy of the Jack Harper slide collection. [11], Rumex obtusifolius is an aggressive invasive species on all temperate continents. [7], In the United Kingdom, the plant is often found growing near stinging nettles and there is a widely held belief that the underside of the dock leaf, squeezed to extract a little juice, can be rubbed on the skin to counteract the itching caused by brushing against a nettle plant. [1] The taproot is large, with numerous branches extending to a depth of 150 centimetres (59 in), with tough stems, often reddish, and unbranched until just below the inflorescence. Bitter dock — also called broad-leaved dock — has leaves which are fairly “flat” across the surface. The plant's dark green leaves will further help you identify it when you find it. If you catch dock too late, it will send up a flower stalk that can grow to 3 feet high. dock. Each page contains identification information, which parts are edible and how to prepare them for safe consumption. Bitter dock is a perennial herbaceous plant that is found in many countries. They can tolerate poor soil, drought and compaction far more than many other species. Indigenous to Europe, Rumex crispus has become naturalized across much of the world. In the spring, the greens are edible and in the fall the plant produces buckwheat like grain that can be ground into wild foraged flour. Even the folks over at the United States Food and Drug Administration are willing to admit the value of Psyllium – something they rarely do when referencing either wild or cultivated herbs. One of the best identification features for docks is a small, thin sheath that covers the base of each dock leaf. ... More Content from Plant Identification Plant Identification. This curious plant belongs to the buckwheat family, which is identified by the nodes that punctuate the plants' stems (an even clearer example being those found on Japanese knotweed). It spreads via seed produced by tiny brownish-green flowers, which appear in abundance in summer and are loved by seed-eating birds. The tap root can be up to 90cm (3ft) in length. Genus Rumex falls into the Polygonaceae. The perianth-segments are in two whorls of three. David Beaulieu is a garden writer with nearly 20 years experience writing about landscaping and over 10 years experience working in nurseries. Yellow dock flowers are green and sometimes a touch of red. They make you think of coffee grounds, which is appropriate since people have roasted this plant's seeds for use as a coffee substitute in the past. The seed stalks start out green but quickly turn to … New York. It is a member of the Polygonaceae (buckwheat or dock) family. Whereas the subject of this article has basal leaves shaped like swords, the basal leaves of its relative are shaped more like shields. [1] The leaves of this plant can grow to about 30 cm (12 in) in length and 15 centimetres (5.9 in) wide. It provides food for at least 6-9 months, and year-round in some climates. [8] This home remedy is not supported by any science, although it is possible that the act of rubbing may act as a distracting counterstimulation, or that belief in the dock's effect may provide a placebo effect. The leaves of Asiatic dock (R. confertus) are just as wide, if not wider. This rosette-forming plant is easily grown as an annual or perennial in sun to partial shade and can even be used in a water garden. It is a culinary and pot herb as well as an apothecary's medicinal. Those of you aware of the challenges involved in dandelion control will understand this problem. It is native to Europe, but is found on all temperate continents. The stem leaves are alternate and are narrowly ovate–lanceolate. Small, greenish white flowers appear on tall spikes. This is called the ocrea, and it turns brown as the plant ages. Segments in the outer whorl are small and spreading while the inner whorl forms fruit valves, which are widely ovately-triangular. It is considered a broadleaf, perennial "weed," "wildflower," or "herb," depending on your perspective. Dock, Rumex crispus, appears in the garden in large spreading groups, and is characterised by coarse, battered leaves. [9], In George Eliot's Adam Bede, set in the early 19th century, broad dock leaves were used to wrap farmhouse butter. R. crispusas the name suggests has wavy, curled leaf edges with wedge-shaped leaves. This plant blooms June through September. This curious plant belongs to the buckwheat family, which is identified by the nodes that punctuate the plants' stems (an even clearer example being those found on Japanese knotweed). But it is mainly the plant's root, rather than its leaves, that has been used in folk medicine. It is 4 mm long; outer whorl of 3 green sepals and... Leaves. Find out … If you have a serious amount of them outcompeting other plant species, stop ploughing and using heavy agricultural machinery on the land because it's that that's causing the dock overgrowth! & Nam, S.-H., 2006. Its toxicity is due to its oxalic acid content. This alternate common name is also sometimes given as "curled dock"; the species name, crispus is Latin for "curly.". [1], Leaves of the plant can be used as salad,[1] to prepare a vegetable broth or to be cooked like spinach. Other dock species common in New Zealand: Curled dock (Rumex crispus) Similar to broad-leaved dock except for its leaves which are narrower, with crinkled edges, leaves tapered towards tip and base. The inflorescence consists of large clusters of racemes which contain small greenish flowers that change to red as they mature. Broadleaf Dock. They can be eaten either raw (when young and tender) or steamed. Blooming occurs in clusters in the form of multiple, long, skinny flower stalks at the top of the plant. Broadleaf Dock. Curly dock, a perennial broadleaf plant, usually grows in wet areas and is frequently associated with overwatering or standing water in low areas. [10], Rumex obtusifolius is a major host plant for many different insects as well, including the Acronicta rumicis moth. It’s unfortunate that peopl Gledhill, David (2008). The flowers start out a much less distinctive light-greenish color (they can have a reddish tinge, too). One of the best survival greens is wild dock. Below is a list of wild edible plants that you can use when living off the land. R. obtusifoliushas long, broad, oval- to lance-shaped leaves with small greenish flowers that turn red as they mature. Bloody dock is an attractive plant with a network of brightly colored veins on its wide, lance-shaped leaves. Regrowth from the rosette usually takes place in spring. Flower spikes have numerous clusters of reddish-brown flowers. 2004. [12], Various parasites and predators of R. obtusifolius include 32 insect species and 12 fungi species. [1], The junctions of the petioles with the stems are covered by a sheath formed by two fused stipules known as an ocrea, a thin, paper-like membrane - a characteristic of the family Polygonaceae. Yellow dock has, in fact, been used medicinally (for a number of ailments) for ages, which is why many prefer to refer to it as an "herb." But it is easy to tell the two apart: True to its name, the broadleaf type has bottom, or "basal" leaves that are very wide (4 inches across, versus 1 inch across for yellow dock plants). It usually requires the presence of the perianth for species identification but this is usually removed during processing in commercial grain lots. 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Leaves that have red stems on their undersides ) it 's not for nothing that plant! Sometimes a touch of red 's dark green leaves will further help you identify it when find.