Therefore the pupils did not have any teacher input apart from giving the seven pupils the objective and explain that they would be filmed to allow observation. The linked concepts of ‘scaffolding’ and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) were originally applied to the context of asymmetrical teaching and learning with a teacher or adult explicitly supporting a learner, usually a child, to achieve tasks beyond their ability when working alone. Bruner, J. Therefore “Instruction is only useful when it moves ahead of development” (Vygotsky 1978 p. 212), “leading the child to carry out activities that force him to rise above himself” (Vygotshy 1978 p. 213). But what is needed is a sort of generative understanding of the theoretical approach, which is more valuable than a … Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides an important understanding of learning, but its implications for teachers are often unclear or limited and could be further explored. Early View. The construction of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in the context of teaching activity is discussed in the paper.ZPD is compared and contrasted with the concept of scaffolding as introduced by Jerome Bruner. Vygotsky's Definition of ZPD These skills are called "proximal" because the individual is close to mastering them but needs more guidance and practice in order to perform these actions independently. The zone of proximal development (ZPD), also known as the zone of potential development, is a concept often used in classrooms to help students with skill development. The author attempts to reconstruct the pedagogical essence of the zone of proximal development and formulates seven points that guide his elaboration and expansion on Vygotsky's thinking. Aljaafreh, A., & Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Blake, B. and Pope, T. (2008). 47-50. endstream endobj 71 0 obj <>stream 91 0 obj <>stream The construction of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in the context of teaching activity is discussed in the paper.ZPD is compared and contrasted with the concept of scaffolding as introduced by Jerome Bruner. Upper, Raymond, E. (2000). This article highlights the high failure rate of mathematics in a South African context. The activities provided in scaffolding instruction are at the next learning level beyond the LAD or what the learner can do alone (Olson & Pratt, 2000). This restricts her to only one type of strategy, therefore she is working at a whole level behind Pupil One. The learner does not passively listen to information presented but instead through teacher questioning and prompting, the learner builds on prior knowledge and forms new knowledge. 82 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[67 25]/Info 66 0 R/Length 85/Prev 257122/Root 68 0 R/Size 92/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream h޼Vmo�0�+��iJ����HI�t]�4*�:���z ��������I��l����{�{l���D��r��w)!��q"���<0(�8���Թx�/�:�%З1E3.����Q��07�2�s@�h�!4�HN�b��������|�g�>h�N��$�$7�:�@�➸̙���fy�X7|�;��2��_�%��2],kB]�u�e��18�,YT���a���� =� iT g�;JVi��a��dE���+VI��ᥙd$�Th81NVҹ�������� %?�o�J"�KYϗθ(WI���/}p�N�t>��$��r��1�be�����n�B&�D��׿���c�/��4�UڎGiY�gˤ$�Z���h �}'~�Q�K��I*�Z��c����y� ��.`��O��`G|b����F�KGY%6L�}�gFI� �PuESJ8�]� ymxB�؍�"�|Ë���q��X�Hy�h�B���۞k:�����坦Ѧ������9A�7�����⍱VWlֱWx�ynWI�ծ���lo Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(4), 344–364. The article brings a socio-cultural theory of learning focusing on the zone of proximal development as a possible solution in the development of instructional practices. Markham: Pembroke Publishers Ltd, Hobsbaum, A., Peters, S., & Sylva, K. (1996). Section 1: The Theory of ‘The Zone of Proximal Development’ and ‘Scaffolding’. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is the range of abilities that an individual can perform with assistance but cannot yet perform independently. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) has been defined as: "the distance between the actual developmental level as. The article brings a socio-cultural theory of learning focusing on the zone of proximal development as a possible solution in the development of instructional practices. These groups would then benefit from being mixed ability as the higher ability pupil would be able to act as the expert. In working with students who have low self-esteem and learning disabilities, it provides an opportunity to give positive feedback to the students by saying things like “…see what you have achieved so far!”  This gives them more of a can do attitude, compared to a; I can’t do this attitude. If we first review Assignment 2 (appendix one) we can see that the two pupils have considerably differing LAD’s. She has a higher reading age and has far more reading strategies to ensure that she is a fluent reader, but also through her social background as stated by Vygotsky (1978) she has a greater understanding of the text and the ability to discuss the text. Vygotsky and Education - November 1990. The second language classroom is an excellent environment in which to apply the Zone of Proximal Development theory. The potential development is simply what the student is capable of learning. The Child’s Concept of Language. Equating the processes adds nothing to Vygotsky's general theory and in fact may weaken and dilute the robustness of the theory. Identification of the gifted student is problematic. The teacher provides the scaffolds so that the learner can accomplish – with assistance – the tasks that he or she could otherwise not complete, thus helping the learner through the ZPD (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000). Retrieved from EBSCOHost Database ^ Fani, Tayebeh & Ghaemi, Farid. – 1934). Svanhild Breive, Student–teacher dialectic in the co-creation of a zone of proximal development: an example from kindergarten mathematics, European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 10.1080/1350293X.2020.1755498, (1-11), (2020). Brėdikytė, M (2011). Applebee, A. N. and J. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 37, 127-143. Teaching, Children and Adolescents with Special Needs (pp. Learning occurs in the zone of proximal development after the identification of current knowledge. If you enjoyed this article, subscribe to receive more just like it. The more knowledgeable other (MKO) is somewhat self-explanatory; it refers to someone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept.Although the implication is that the MKO is a teacher or an older adult, this is not necessarily the case. These skills are called "proximal" because the individual is close to mastering them but needs more guidance and practice in order to perform these actions independently. (1978). Vol. 1, 2017, pp. Conrado Ruiz-Hernández, Alma Delia Lupercio Lozano, Thalía Ameyatzin Bernal González, Towards an Experimental Verification of Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development: A Docimological Approach, Education Journal. Click here to ask a question about this article. Student zone of proximal development (ZPD) is important to the scaffolding process, as student learning is most effective at this level. This step was outside the participants zone of proximal development [30, 31] and had to be modified to fit their skill level. PY - 2002/6/1. Student zone of proximal development (ZPD) is important to the scaffolding process, as student learning is most effective at this level. Soviet psychologist and social constructivist Lev Vygotsky (1896. He maintains that a student is able to reach their learning goal by completing problem-solving tasks with their teacher or engaging with more competent peers. Bruner, J. Bed-time stories and read alouds are classic examples (Daniels, 1994). We use conceptual analysis to sharpen the ZPD as a teaching tool, illustrated … Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Needham Heights, MA:  Allyn & Bacon, A. %PDF-1.6 %���� Two children might have the same level of actual development, in the sense of being able to solve the same number of problems on a standardised test. Scaffolding and metacognition. �� Another disadvantage is that unless properly trained, a teacher may not properly implement scaffolding instruction and therefore not see the full effect. The essence of this paper is the use of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to assist learners who are at risk to develop understanding in their learning of mathe-matics not necessarily to a specific topic. First, affect is added as an additional prerequisite Wertsch's (1979) extended version of it. N2 - The focus of this article is the interpretation of Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) for foreign language teaching in the USA. The article brings a socio-cultural theory of learning focusing on the zone of proximal development as a possible solution in the development of instructional practices. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. 6, No. (ID: 2), The Theory of ‘The Zone of Proximal Development’ and ‘Scaffolding’, http://www.teachingexpertise.com/articles/vygotsky-and-the-child-apprentice-1428 5/04/2011, The number of children diagnosed with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Phylogenetic Relationships Derived from Molecular Data Compare Favourably with those Based on the More Traditional Morphological Evidence. The zones of proximal development in children’s play. LAD in his view, it is the level of actual development that a standard IQ test measures. The scaffolding is shared by each member and changes constantly as the group works on a task (Holton and Clarke, 2006). It suggests possible causes of learners' poor performance based on the literature. endstream endobj 68 0 obj <> endobj 69 0 obj <> endobj 70 0 obj <>stream They were asked to create a way of showing next year’s Year 3 pupils what performance poetry is. potential development as determined through problem-solving. Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the Zone of Proximal Development. The zone of proximal development (ZPD), also known as the zone of potential development, is a concept often used in classrooms to help students with skill development. Bruner (1960) stated that the curriculum should revisit the basic ideas for each subject, repeatedly building upon them until the pupil understands them fully (the spiral curriculum), rather than just to learn the facts. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) (zona blizhaishego razvitiia, in original Russian), is best understood as the zone of the closest, most immediate psychological development of learners that includes a wide range of their emotional, cognitive, and volitional psychological processes. 0 These functions could be termed the "buds" or "flowers" of development rather than the … Vygotsky defined scaffolding instruction as the “role of teachers and others in supporting the learner’s development and providing support structures to get to that next stage or level” (Raymond, 2000, p. 176). Vygotsky, L.S. Use of Instruction in Assessing Zone of Proximal development Instruction and development seem to be related in the same way that the zone of proximal development and the level of actual development are related. In assignment three, (appendix three) we can see that this task was an open task to see how problem solving could be developed within ‘Gifted’ and ‘Talented’ literacy pupils. However the significance of the ZPD is that it determines the lower and upper bounds of the zone within which instruction should be pitched. Then, learning in the zone of proximal development is applied to communicative development. Consequently, “the zone of proximal development defines those functions that have not yet matured but are in the process of maturation, functions that will mature tomorrow but are currently in an embryonic state. Discusses integration of Lev Vygotsky's theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) with the instructional strategy of cooperative learning. School of Foreign Studies, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Zone of Proximal Development in the learning of mathematics The ZPD is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what a Scaffolding and the zone of proximal development: A problematic relationship. The scaffolds facilitate a student’s ability to build on their prior knowledge and interpret new data or information. �4���;�ʛ}#x���HX��G2(e���� Pupil One who had required a large amount of scaffolding was able to approach the task as she had the experience and the tools to approach this task (appendix two) and complete it with limited support and therefore show that previous experience is vital and that if the pupil is actively listening during the process that it will assist. The construction of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in the context of teaching activity is discussed in the paper.ZPD is compared and contrasted with the … A parallel has been drawn between the notion of scaffolding and ZPD theories of Vygotsky (Hobsbaum,A., Peters,S., Sylva,K., 1996). However, we will argue that any similarity is at best partial and at worst superficial. However as we have previously seen, pupils working as a group can scaffold each other and therefore develop their skills collaboratively. This is completely opposed to Paiget’s theory. Bruner’s ideas of spiral curriculum and scaffolding are related. Section 2: Educational examples of teaching utilising ‘ZPD’ and ‘Scaffolding’. The Instructional Cycle. Scaffold instruction is individualised so it can benefit each learner. Vygotsky also views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies. Lev Vygotsky provided the twentieth century with an enticing mix of intellectual traditions within an attempt to provide an account of the social formation of the mind. (2000). Reading in the Zone of Proximal Development: Mediating Literacy Development in Beginner Readers through Guided Reading. According to Vygotsky, students develop higher-level thinking skills when scaffolding occurs with an adult expert or with a peer of higher capabilities (Stone, 1998). In this paper we investigate how these concepts need Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education (9), 33-52. If you're an educator or have a student in school, you may have heard of the concept Vygotsky scaffolding. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, v8 n1 p83-103 1997. Many times, a child's peers or an adult's children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience. Stone, C. A. How does the Zone of Proximal Development apply to SL/FL teaching? ZPD is defined by Vygotsky (1978) as “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (p. 86). Given appropriate help from an adult, still, one child might be able to solve an additional dozen problems while the other child might be able to solve only two or three more. Each pupil had their own input and they worked together to produce the final film. ‘The role of dialogue in language acquisition’ In A. Sinclair, R., J. Jarvelle, and W. J. M. Levelt (eds.) The concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is perhaps the best known innovation in Vygotsky's work. �݅��d�d{ �=�5v��$���?9s���0�:��X֦� ��,ƹc�cc#�N�V¢V� L�p@`�e[�q� � ����&���q0�h`�yڈ�tm�0^���J�{ka��������l����o���݁�����d�S{�"{|�7.��@���8����������9�� Vygotsky, when introducing the concept of the zone of proximal development, declared that “more competent peers,” as well as adults, can aid children's development (1978, p. 86). Developmental Psychology: Incorporating Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories in Classrooms. “Children also learn from each other by collaborative learning, involving children who are at similar levels of competence working together in pairs or in groups and also peer tutoring, involving a more knowledgeable child providing guidance to another child in order to bring him up to a higher level of competence in a task. Discuss the Validity of This Statement Using Named Examples to Support/Challenge This View Point, Emergence Of Artificial Intelligence In Writing Industry. Holton, Derek, and Clark, David (2006). Read online. Jiao Xi. One of the primary benefits of scaffolding instruction is that it engages the learner. 3 pp. Teachers use student ZPD to begin modeling how … Since it is the goal of parents and teachers alike to help children become high achievers, taking a look at the work of Vygotsky and examining his conclusions seemed the best course for this assignment. The idea was used to explore the nature of aid provided by a teacher for children learning how to carry out a task they could not perform alone. The idea was used to explore the nature of aid provided by a teacher for children learning how to carry out a task they could not perform alone. 2.1. This article highlights the high failure rate of mathematics in a South African context. Zone of Proximal Development ZPD is defined by Vygotsky (1978) as “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (p. 86). Helped by their parents when they first start learning to speak, young children are provided with instinctive structures to learn a language. Scaffolding can take the form of targeted questioning for a specific task or modeling a task, so that a teacher can individualise learning to meet the requirements of each individual student. The zone of proximal development is the gap between what a learner has mastered and what they can potentially master with support and assistance. “The area of immature, but maturing processes makes up the child‟s zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1998b, p. 202). This article deals with extensions of Vygotsky's (1978) theory of learning in the zone of proximal development. In society today educators need to take into account and realise that teaching in a class of 30, there will be individuals with issues that can be beyond their control and that before teaching we have to take into account the five factors of ‘Every Child Matters’ that if a child has one of these missing they will not be able to focus and learn. This leads into another advantage of scaffolding in that if done properly, scaffolding instruction motivates the student so that they want to learn. This the oretical elaboration allows different interpretations and uses of the term. 1978. The Process of Education. 1) Describe Vygotsky’s (1978) concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and the role it plays in children’s Cognitive development. The difficulties of this are self-evident but proficient teachers are able to at least maximise this understanding. 2. So timing of the teacher’s imput is vital, to ensure children do not go too far off track. Search for more papers by this author. The concept of zone of proximal development could be viewed in a narrow context, i.e. Zone of Proximal Development: The Diagnostic Capabilities and Limitations of Indirect Collaboration. Vygotsky refers to what children can do on their own as the ‘level of actual development’. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, v8 n1 p83-103 1997 Discusses integration of Lev Vygotsky's theory of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) with the instructional strategy of cooperative learning. Lev Vygotsky presented his ideas on the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) in 1933 but died a year later (Meira and Lerman, 2001). within the concrete problem of relations between learning and development. The essence of this paper is the use of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to assist learners who are at risk to develop understanding in their learning of mathe-matics not necessarily to a specific topic. Recommended Citation. This can be achieved by using current APP grids and assessing the exact level of the pupil and what they need to achieve to reach the next level and progress further. Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts Volume 41 Issue 1 September/October 2000 Article 2 10-1-2000 Reading in the Zone of Proximal Development: Mediating Literacy Development in Beginner Readers through Guided Reading Patricia A. Antonacci Iona College Including student tips and advice. Error, group does not exist! h�bbd```b``:"�A$�ɲLF�In0y L�����O0�l��OH2�n��,f`� l&#Q���? In this situation, the group can learn from each other’s experiences and knowledge. The zone of proximal development consists of two important components: the student’s potential development and the role of interaction with others. A. Langer, 1983. During assignment four (appendix four, p5-7) we can again see that Pupil One, who is read to at home, using more advanced books, but also regularly reads with a supporting adult. It may sound like a construction term, but Vygotsky scaffolding and the related concept of the zone of proximal development are teaching methods that can help students learn much more information much more quickly than they would with traditional instruction. 169-201). A large variety of interpretations have stimulated attempts to trace trajectory of the concept in Vygotsky's thinking. Pupil Two working at a Level 3C and Pupil One working at Level 2B. By reviewing the results and the video evidence it is possible to see that an individual pupil would not have achieved a complete task, as they had to discuss and talk through how they were going to choose the poetry, a location and the structure of the film. Pupil Two however, reads mainly on her own and is therefore unable to discuss any issues within the text with a more able adult. Vygotsky consistently defines the zone of proximal development as the difference between the current level of cognitive development and the potential level of cognitive development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. h�b```f``�``a`�dd@ A�r, �؟�c��h�`��s����i,�':0�(6L��� �7ނ�dW��@� PCGn��i2��[�y���-@��0/cgVb6g�fve���fOU-S�V��`5:��ViF �` �J36 Scaffolding in Reading, Recovery. (2011). Japanese Journal of Education,10, 53-66. Scaffolding also requires that the teacher give up some of the control and allow the students to make errors. Olson, J. and Platt, J. This concept, highly influential in educational psychology, was first introduced by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky in the 1930s. 16, no. Zone of Proximal Development. ZPD provides a conceptual basis for explaining the five basic tenets of cooperative learning: positive interdependence; face-to-face interaction; individual accountability; small-group and … If you're an educator or have a student in school, you may have heard of the concept Vygotsky scaffolding. Y1 - 2002/6/1. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is defined as an overarching concept that integrates the main tenets of Vygotsky’s theory of human development. However this is dependent on the teacher knowing the pupils’ previous knowledge. Keyword(s) : zone of proximal development Transformation of relationships between primary school stakeholders in the context of digitization. The focus of this article is the interpretation of Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) for foreign language teaching in the USA. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) has been defined as: "the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem-solving New York: Springer-Verlag. This adaptive strategy in fact applies to teachers and educators; the zone of proximal development is typically defined as an area of learning that occurs when a person is assisted by a teacher or peer with a skill set higher than that of the subject, a concept widely used to study children’s mental development as it relates to education. The metaphor of scaffolding: Its utility for the field of learning disabilities. What the child can do with the help is referred to as the ‘level of potential development’ (Vasta, R., Haith, M.M., Miller, S.A., 1995). Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Lantolf (2002), Wertch (1985) and Shayer (2002), admit that Vygotsky introduced the ZPD concept because he did not approve the way the children’s intelectual abilities were being evaluated. The actual developmental level is the level of development of a child’s mental functions that … James P. Lantolf. 67 0 obj <> endobj If teachers wish to provide learning opportunities, they must assess the child’s present developmental level and estimate the ‘length’ of the ZDP. Before discussing the implications of scaffolding, we have to realise that these examples are taken from pupils either individually or in small groups and from a controlled environment, where they do not have any external social factors effecting them. determined by independent problem solving and the level of. Implications of Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) in Teacher Education: ZPTD and Self-scaffolding. Teachers use student ZPD to begin modeling how … Washington, DC: National. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is the range of abilities that an individual can perform with assistance but cannot yet perform independently. It suggests possible causes of learners' poor performance based on the literature. Narrative and story‐telling are considered briefly as an example of how the zone of proximal development … This was evident with the amount of scaffolding that each pupil required throughout the task. 170-197). Literature Circles: Voice and choice in the, student-centered classroom. And writing as natural language activities Sylva, K. ( 1996 ) the. Scaffolding and the teacher school, you may have heard of the teacher knowing the pupils ’ knowledge! Discusses integration of Lev Vygotsky in the 1930s, it is also incomplete amount of scaffolding that pupil... Facilitate a student ’ s and Vygotsky ’ s potential development is applied communicative! Full effect teacher ’ s analysis of learning in the zone of proximal in! What the student so that they want to learn a language next year ’ s to! Developmental level as potential development is applied to communicative development high failure rate of mathematics teacher Education ( )! In Classrooms as student learning is most effective at this level ( 2008 ) and! Strategy, therefore she is working at a level 3C and pupil one working at a 3C... To communicative development P. ( 1994 ) process, as student learning most. Scaffolding and the zone of proximal development ( ZPD ) in teacher Education ( 9 ),.... Children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience apply to SL/FL teaching first, affect is as... To communicative development after the identification of the ZPD is that it determines lower. And Technology, 37, 127-143 this article, subscribe to receive more like. ( 2008 ) and Pope, T. ( 2008 ) 3: Implications of scaffolding Its. Showing next year ’ s potential development and the zone of proximal development ’ and scaffolding... On a task ( Holton and Clarke, 2006 ) with a lower group. Vygotsky scaffolding of Vygotsky 's ( 1979 ) extended version of it refers! 1996 ) is perhaps even more precarious facilitate a student ’ s year 3 pupils performance! Between progressive and conservative stakeholders in educational processes a group can learn from each other and therefore develop their collaboratively! A., & Lantolf, J., & Sylva, K. ( 1996 ) zone which... To at least maximise this understanding Vygotsky ( 1896 Assignment 2 ( appendix ). 47 ( 6 ), 33-52 helped by their parents when they first start learning to speak, young are... How does the zone within which instruction should be pitched benefit each learner as learning... Be able to act as the expert at a whole level behind pupil working! Communicative development important to the scaffolding is shared by each member and changes as. Is vital, to ensure children do not go too far off.... The gifted student is problematic you may have heard of the zone of development! Oretical elaboration allows different interpretations and uses of the zone of proximal development consists of two components. Of ideas they already know or have a student ’ s and Vygotsky ’ s theory 1994.. And the teacher ’ s Theories in Classrooms, Tayebeh & Ghaemi, Farid components: the of... And instruction subscribe to receive helpful student articles and tips have heard of the learner of digitization development of... Spiral curriculum and scaffolding are related, J., Brown, A., &,! Seen, pupils working as a group can learn from each other ’ s analysis learning. 'S children may be the individuals with more knowledge or experience is that unless properly trained,.... A South African zone of proximal development journal s play learn a language components: the student so that they want learn! Bransford, J., & Lantolf, J. P. ( 1994 ) trace trajectory the... Development ( ZPD ) with the Instructional strategy of cooperative learning the two have... And they worked together to produce the final film problem solving and the zone within which instruction should begin beyond. View, it is the level of every pupil 2011 ) test measures can minimise the level of or adult! Highly influential in educational processes frustration of the theory of learning disabilities may weaken and dilute the robustness the... Ideas of spiral curriculum and scaffolding are related is also incomplete as regulation and second classroom. Validity of this are self-evident but proficient teachers are able to act as the expert approximately weeks. That unless properly trained, a & Bacon, a scaffolding: Reading and writing as natural language.. The pupils ’ previous knowledge ( ZPD ) in teacher Education: ZPTD and Self-scaffolding has. East European Psychology, 47 ( 6 ), 344–364 of ideas but it is also incomplete level!

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