It may terminate short of one or both ends of the cell. In stem most usually it originates in the sub-pepidermal layer. Sclerenchyma is the supporting tissue in plants.Two types of sclerenchyma cells exist: fibers and sclereids.Their cell walls consist of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.Sclerenchyma cells are the principal supporting cells in plant tissues that have ceased elongation. Veins are composed of xylem and phloem cells embedded in parenchyma, sometimes sclerenchyma, and surrounded by bundle sheath cells. Ø Cells do not have protoplast when they completely developed. Sclerenchyma is the tissue which makes the plant hard and stiff. Ø Sclerenchymatous cells are dead at their maturity. Sclerenchyma tissues and conducting elements of the phloem and xylem were studied in stems in several stages of development. In the center of the stem is ground tissue. Ø Sclerenchyma is a simple permanent tissue in plants. Sclerenchyma cells have a lignified and strong secondary cell wall and are usually dead at maturity. During ontogeny the primary-phloem fibers develop a thick primary wall over which a thick secondary wall is subsequently deposited. The term Sclerenchyma is derived from the Greek word ‘skleros’ means ‘hard’ and ‘enchyma’, an ‘infusion’. The term sclerenchyma was coined by Mettenius in 1805 and the cells are known as sclerenchymatous cells. Figure 2.6.b. The bundles are smaller than in the dicot stem, and distinct layers of xylem, phloem and sclerenchyma cannot be discerned. Sclerenchyma (Structure, Types and Functions of Sclerenchymatous Cells in Plants) What are Sclerenchymatous Cells? They are generally located in nongrowing areas of plant bodies, like mature stems or bark. SCLERENCHYMA The cells making sclerenchyma tissue are rigid and function to support the weight of a plant organ. In some fibers the secondary wall does not extend the full length of the cell lumen. 2.2.3 Sclerenchyma. In plants, sclerenchyma is the supporting tissue that is composed of any of several types of woody cells. Ø The secondary cell wall is lignified and very hard. These cells tend to have thick, lignified secondary cell walls. Sclerenchyma fibers cap the vascular bundles. They can be of two broad types: sclereids and fiber cells. Development of Periderm: The first periderm commonly appears during the first year of growth of stem and root. Sclerenchyma cells are found wherever a plant needs strength and support, such as fibers, stone cells, wood, and water-conducting cells. Sclereid cells or stone cells in the pear fruit. The cells are nonstretchable and rigid. The vein xylem transports water from the petiole throughout the lamina mesophyll, and the phloem transports sugars out of the leaf to the rest of the plant. They are dead at maturity. The deficiency of SLL1, whose main function is to determine the development of the abaxial sclerenchyma cells of the leaf, leads to a defect in the formation of sclerenchyma cells on the abaxial side, thereby resulting in incurved leaves (Zhang et al., 2009). The development of sclerenchyma cells is closely related to changes in leaf curling. Ø They have thick secondary cell wall. Sclerenchyma is a specialized tissue consisting of a group of cells in which secondary walls are often lignified. 2.2.3.1 Sclereids Figure 2.6.a. There are two types of sclerenchyma cells: fibers and sclereids. In (b) monocot stems, vascular bundles composed of xylem and phloem tissues are scattered throughout the ground tissue. Sclerenchyma cells with thick cells walls that are stained red due to lignin in the cell walls. 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