This conscious state of nescience leads to samsara (cycle of reincarnation), only to end for a jiva when moksha (liberation) is achieved through self-realization or remembrance of one's true spiritual self/nature.[34][35][36][37][38]. Hence, inherent in the 'loka' concept in the earliest literature was a double aspect; that is, coexistent with spatiality was a religious or soteriological meaning, which could exist independent of a spatial notion, an 'immaterial' significance. Living entities are born in many universes, like mosquitoes in many udumbara (cluster fig) fruits. In the Brahmanda Purana, as well as Bhagavata Purana (2.5),[49] fourteen lokas (planes) are described, consist of seven higher (Vyahrtis) and seven lower (Patalas) lokas. Our universe is described as the smallest with a Brahma of only four heads. The Rigveda contains the Nasadiya sukta hymn which does not offer a cosmological theory, but asks cosmological questions about the nature of universe and how it began: Darkness there was at first, by darkness hidden; One cosmology, shared by Hindu, Buddhist and Jain texts involves Mount Meru, with stars and sun moving around it using Dhruva (North Star) as the focal reference. Composition begins on The Vedas. Each universe lasts for 4.32 billion years in a time period called a kalpa or day of Brahma, where the universe … 300 BCE. That One by force of heat came into being; Who really knows? Who can count the Indras in them all--those Indras side by side, who reign at once in all the innumerable worlds; those others who passed away before them; or even the Indras who succeed each other in any given line, ascending to godly kingship, one by one, and, one by one, passing away. Therefore You are called unlimited. Hinduism is not only a religion but also a way of life. The jivas are not created, and are distinctly different from the created unconscious matter. maha-yuga), each with four yugas: Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. Hindu scriptures refer to time scales that vary from ordinary earth day and night to the day and night of the Brahma that are a few billion earth years lon. pancha bhoota or 5 great elements) and their associated senses and sense organs that manifest:[19][20][21][a], The different states of matter are guided by eternal kala (time), which repeats general events ranging from a moment to the lifespan of the universe, which is cyclically created and destroyed. This graphic of the timeline was created by Martin Vargic, Slovak graphic designer. The major difference between the East and West is the concept of Time. [53][54] According to Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, the diversity of cosmology theories in Hinduism may reflect its tendency to not reject new ideas and empirical observations as they became available, but to adapt and integrate them creatively.[55]. - Rig Veda hymns composed c. 800 – 500 B.C. What was concealed? He teaches that in order to depend upon—and be acted upon by—the divine, humans must be a completely separate entity. Hinduism … James G. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. [50][51], However, other Puranas give different version of this cosmology and associated myths. Evidence of early Hindu practice is archaeologically dated to this vanished culture All universes manifest from the same matter, and so they all follow parallel time cycles, manifesting and unmanifesting at the same time. 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